Before you even consider the probate of an estate, there are several preliminary matters that have to be attended to immediately after a loved on dies. These are the pressing matters that have to be attended to or considered immediately after death.
Determination of Death
The first step after someone dies involves contacting the authorities to report the death. This typically involves contacting local law enforcement to notify them of the death. This step is usually not necessary if a physician was in attendance at the time of death, such as when someone dies in a hospital.
A report of death must be made within 24 hours of death. The coroner, Justice of the Peace, or attending physician is authorized to make a determination of death.
The Deceased’s Body or Remains
Disposition of the Body
One of the most pressing concerns, when someone dies, is figuring out what to do with the body or remains and making the necessary arrangements for the body or remains.
Human remains can be donated, buried, cremated, or entombed. It is necessary to determine whether the deceased is an organ or tissue donor, whether the deceased left burial instructions and how to make these arrangements, as well as how to deal with funeral homes and other businesses and service providers.
Organ and Tissue Donor Status
Texas law allows organ and tissue donations by:
- including donation language in a valid will (or other document subscribed to by two witnesses),
- a notation on a Texas driver’s license or a card issued by another organization that is intended to be carried with the would-be donor, or
- registering with an online donor registry.
If the donation is made by will or other documents, the family or loved ones may need to alert the medical personnel to this fact.
Even if these documents or processes are complete, it may not be possible to salvage the organs or tissues. To donate organs, the would-be donor must die in a hospital while on a ventilator. This ensures that the organs are suitable for donation.
In most cases, the hospital will alert organ recovery agencies for patients who are donors and who meet these criteria. These organizations typically provide the donor’s family or loved ones with a Document of Gift form before they begin the process of recovering the organs and tissues.
It should also be noted that some organs are suitable for donation even if they do not require a continuous blood supply. Even if the patient died outside of the hospital or while on a ventilator, hospital personnel or funeral home directors, as well as organ recovery organizations, may be able to recover these organs.
Written Burial Instructions
Texas law also allows a person to provide written directions for the disposition of their remains. This can be provided for in a:
- Valid will,
- Prepaid funeral contract, or
- Another written and acknowledged document.
If the directions are in a will, they shall be carried out immediately without the necessity of probate. If the will is not probated or is declared invalid for testamentary purposes, the directions are valid to the extent to which they were followed in good faith.
Most directives are included in documents that are separate from the will. The reason for this is that the will is generally filed in the public records and most people do not care to have their medical wishes made public.
Absent a will, Texas law provides a fill-in form for appointing an agent to make these decisions. The form can be used to detail the specific powers granted and not granted.
Texas law goes on to require the person authorized to carry out the directions to do so if they are financially able to do so. This highlights the need to appoint someone who can afford to follow the directions and who is willing to do so.
Prepaid funeral contracts can be handy for this purpose. With a prepaid funeral contract, the party that is obligated to provide services is liable for additional expenses incurred for disposing of the decedent’s body if they breach the contract.
So what can a written directive, will, or funeral contract cover? According to Texas law, they may give directions regarding any lawful request related to funeral or burial arrangements, including instructions to cremate the body. This can even include very detailed directions, such as what the gravestone should say. The courts generally uphold all but highly unreasonable directions.
No Written Burial Instructions
In the absence of written burial instructions, Texas law provides a priority list of persons who have the right to control the disposition of the body, including cremation.
This priority list is as follows:
- The person designated in a written instrument signed by the decedent,
- The decedent’s surviving spouse,
- Any one of the decedent’s surviving adult children,
- Either one of the decedent’s surviving parents,
- Any one of the decedent’s surviving adult siblings,
- Any one or more of the duly qualified executors or administrators of the decedent’s estate, or
- Any adult person in the next degree of kinship in the order named by law to inherit the estate of the decedent.
So if the designated person does not fulfill these duties, then the surviving spouse has the right to do so. If the surviving spouse refuses, then any of the surviving adult children have the right to do so.
Texas Estates Code § 152.101 authorizes the probate court to limit the spouse’s right to arrange for the funeral if a spouse is suspected to have caused the death. The personal representative named in the will or the next of kin has to file an application with the probate court to limit the ability of the spouse to control the burial to avail themselves of this right. The spouse is entitled to notice and a hearing before the court issues this type of order. If the court grants the order, it will also designate and authorize a person to make the burial or cremation arrangements instead of the spouse.
Failing to Act Timely Terminates the Right
What happens if the person with the right to control the disposition, what happens then? Texas law supplies this answer too.
If the person fails to make the final arrangements or appoint another person to make final arrangements for the disposition before the earlier of the 6th day after the date the person received notice of the decedent’s death or the 10th day after the date the decedent died, the person is presumed to be unable or unwilling to control the disposition.
The law says that the person’s right to control the disposition is terminated at that point. The right to control the disposition is passed to the following persons in the following priority (a) any other person in the same priority class as the person whose right was terminated or (b) a person in a different priority class.
When there is a Dispute Over the Body
If there is a dispute as to the burial arrangements, it is possible to have the courts resolve the dispute.
The funeral home can refuse to accept the decedent’s body and refuse to carry out the decedent’s wishes in these cases until it receives a court order or other suitable confirmation that the dispute has been resolved or settled.
This is also handled by an emergency application to the probate court. But if the party is seeking to have the body cremated rather than buried, the court may require the applicant to file it as a declaratory relief action (which has a 20 day notice period).
Dealing With Funeral Homes & Others
The last step is to make arrangements to have the decedent’s remains transported to the mortuary. The person with the right to control the decedent’s body will typically contact a funeral home and the funeral home will then arrange transportation for the decedent’s body.
While a funeral home is contracted to provide services in most cases, a family could take care of all aspects of the disposition from death to internment, inurnment, entombment or transporting out of state without the assistance of a funeral home.
There are a number of services that may be purchased from a funeral home and other third parties, such as embalming, purchasing a casket, making cemetery arrangements, engaging a minister, and deciding on what type of funeral service to have.
The decedent’s family members or loved ones may be at a disadvantage when negotiating with these third parties. This is often due to not being familiar with the process, a fragile mental state given the death, a perceived need to expedite the funeral, or not understanding that it is possible to shop around for services and better prices.
Texas law recognizes this disadvantage in negotiating positions. The law sets out some rules that funeral homes must follow. For example, Texas law provides that a funeral home has to provide current retail price information over the telephone if requested. They also have to provide a General Price List to itemize the costs of their funeral services and merchandise. They may also provide a Casket Price List, an Outer Burial Container Price List, and an Urn Price List too. These price lists must specify the charges for:
- Forwarding or receiving remains to or from the funeral establishment;
- Direct cremation;
- Immediate burial;
- Other preparations of the body;
- Use of funeral establishment and staff for viewing, funeral ceremony, memorial service and/or graveside services;
- Use of hearse and/or limousine;
- Caskets and/or outer enclosures if not provided on a separate list;
- Filing a claim seeking life insurance proceeds; and
- Other itemized services provided by the funeral establishment and staff.
The funeral home must then provide a written and signed contract with the services and merchandise selected.
Consumers are also protected under Texas law when it comes to prepaid funeral contracts. While the terms, funding options, and coverage of prepaid funeral contracts vary, the purchaser is entitled to receive all guaranteed items selected on the contract at no additional charge per the contract’s terms. Given that they are no longer able to manage their own finances, this helps ensure that the person who dies receives what they paid for.
However, this does not preclude the funeral home from providing and charging for additional services. Additional charges may apply for items not included in the prepaid contract or cash advance items purchased as non-guaranteed items. The person handling a probate where a prepaid funeral contract exists should obtain the contract and confirm whether any services are being provided that are not covered by the contract.
Do you need an Experienced Probate Attorney to help after a family member dies?
It can be difficult to know what to do after a loved one dies. One of the things you may need to do is deal with their estate and any assets they may have left behind. This process is called probate, and it can be complicated.
An experienced probate attorney can help you through the process and make sure everything is taken care of properly. They can help you understand the laws and requirements, and guide you through each step of the process.
If you are dealing with the death of a loved one, contact an experienced probate attorney today to get the help you need. Call us for a FREE attorney consultation. (915) 292-4400.
What happens to a body when someone dies?
There are many different ways to deal with a loved one’s body after they die. Depending on the person’s wishes, they may be cremated, buried, or have some other type of funeral service. If the person did not leave any specific instructions, then it is up to the family to decide what to do.
Cremation is a popular option these days, as it is relatively affordable and can be done quickly. The body is burned in a special furnace and the ashes are returned to the family. They can then be scattered, buried, or kept in an urn.
Burial is another common option, although it is more expensive than cremation. A coffin or casket is used to store the body and it is then buried in a grave. The grave can be marked with a headstone or other type of marker.
Some families choose to have a funeral service for their loved one, even if they are not going to be buried or cremated. This can be a religious service or a more secular ceremony. It is a way to say goodbye to the person and to celebrate their life.
How long can a dead body be kept at home?
There is no one answer to this question as it depends on a number of factors, including the climate, the cause of death, state laws, and personal preferences. In general, though, a dead body can be kept at home for up to 24 hours before it begins to decompose. If you are unsure about how long you can keep the body, it is best to consult with a funeral director.
Can you keep the body of a loved one who has passed away?
The answer to this question may depend on your personal beliefs, as well as the laws in your state or country. In some cultures, it is traditional for people to keep the dead body of a loved one at home until burial or cremation. This allows family and friends to pay their respects and say their final goodbyes. In other cultures, people believe that the body should be taken to a funeral home or mortuary as soon as possible after death.
There are also practical considerations to take into account. If you live in a hot climate, for example, keeping a body at home may not be possible due to the risk of decomposition. In this case, it is best to consult with a funeral director to make arrangements.
Is it good to touch a dead person?
There’s no right or wrong answer to this question – it’s entirely up to personal preference. Some people find comfort in touching their loved one’s body after they’ve passed, while others find it too upsetting. If you’re unsure how you feel, it’s perfectly okay to ask a funeral director or other professional (including a doctor) for guidance.
Who picks up and transports dead bodies from homes for disposal?
There are a number of different ways to dispose of a loved one’s body after they have died. The most common method is to have the body picked up by a funeral home or crematorium. They will then transport the body to the appropriate facility for disposal. Other methods of disposal include burial at a cemetery or cremation.